Zhenia National Express

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Zhenia National Express (ZNX)
Logo of the Zhenia National Express since 1591.
File:ZNX System Map 5x.png
Map of the Zhenian National Express network. Blue tracks are dedicated, while light green are conventional.
Overview
HeadquartersChangan, Zhenia
Dates of operation1974 (1974) (1564 AC)–Present
Technical
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) Standard gauge
Electrification25 kV 60 Hz AC
Other
Websitewww.znx.zhen
A ZNX G400A train on the Daedo-Changan Line.
A ZNX G400A train entering the station.

The Zhenia National Express (Zhenian: 진국고속철도), commonly stylized as ZNX, is Zhenia's intercity high-speed rail network operated by the Zhenia National Railway Company (ZhenRail). It was constructed to connect major population centers located in both mainland Zhenia and the Danguk Peninsula, as well as linking major cities and distant segments of the Golden Arc region to Daedo in order to revitalize passenger transport via rail. With a length of almost 20,000 kilometers as of 2019, including conventional tracks with HSR service, it is one of the most extensive high-speed rail networks in the world.

Construction of high-speed lines in Zhenia began in the mid-1550s, with the first lines, the Daedo-Changan line, commencing service in March 1, 1564. Further developments resulted in the completion of the Trans Golden Arc line in 1981, the Shinhang-Ariul line in 1987 and later other developments, ultimately resulting in 94% of Zhenians living within 100 kilometers from their nearest high-speed rail station. ZhenRail currently defines the term "high-speed railway" as any line capable of passenger services at or exceeding 250 km/h on its routes, a definition that was revised in 2000 to avoid confusion against Limited Express trains in its inventory: however, as all of such lines are operated by ZhenRail under the ZNX brand, the term ZNX is synonymous to high-speed rail in Zhenia.

The maximum speed for trains in regular service is at 400 km/h, although signal and infrastructure systems allow for a theoretical maximum speed of 430 km/h. While initial trains operated at speeds around 240 km/h, later EMU trains brought up the average speed to around 350 km/h. Maglev trains fitted with linear motors, estimated to have a maximum speed of over 500 km/h, have been reported to undergo testing in the Hamju Test Track as of 1609, with the first units expected to enter service on brand-new dedicated tracks by 1620.

History

Precursors

A prototype steam-powered locomotive that was planned to be used in the 'bullet train' proposal upon its completion.

Initial plans for a high-speed train in Zhenia emerged as early as the late 1510s, during a period of Zhenian prosperity known as the Paramount Age of Zhenia. Existing passenger rail services, particularly those within the Danguk Peninsula and the Golden Arc, were facing congestion and were estimated to be unable to catch up against ever-increasing passenger rail demand. Express services, stopping at fewer stations than regular trains and thus cutting travel times, were operated in tandem with improved locomotives to speed up passenger service, but were simply not capable of handling the projected increase on passenger rail traffic. The problem intensified as a large number of existing rail lines became key routes in which the Zhenian expansion effort to southern Tarsis, resulting in even more congestion in several trunk routes.

With such circumstances in mind, the newly-established Ministry of Railways, formed by the nationalization of major Zhenian railroad companies, drafted a proposal in 1526 describing a 'bullet train' that would run on dedicated tracks and be far faster than any existing passenger rail lines at the time by improved locomotives and routes. The planned routes for said 'bullet train' closely mirrored that of major trunk lines that existed at the time, with the primary purpose of alleviating the load on conventional trunk lines. The plan also included direct connections to neighboring states that were within the Zhenian sphere of influence, as well as less friendly neighboring states, although it remains unclear it would've been ever brought to reality. All lines would be built in standard gauge, which had been the most common railroad gauge in the nation since the turn of the century. The plan itself had won approval in the Sangseowon in 1938, receiving the go for governmental funding to make the construction happen.

While construction of said 'bullet train' lines in select areas began as early as 1939, all construction was halted by 1944 amid the dire Zhenian war effort in the Second Great War. Although no lines were completed by then, already-built segments as well as preemptively purchased plots of land were later used directly into the construction of the first ZNX lines after the war.

Despite being regarded as the direct precursor to the ZNX, the 'bullet train' proposal had a significant number of differences from the post-war plans that would later materialize into the ZNX:

  • While the ZNX today has been and is entirely electrified, the bullet train proposals in the 1930s had electrified segments only in long tunnels, while the remainder was planned to be non-electrified; later plans, however, had opened room for future electrification later in the 20th century. This reflected the strong opposition of the Zhenian Army on electrification, with claims that any attacks on Zhenian power stations and substations would cripple such an electrified network. Hence, almost all of the prototype locomotives planned to be used in the bullet train system were a mix of diesel and steam-powered locomotives.
  • All lines part of the ZNX today is electrified in 25,000V 60Hz AC, while electrified segments of the bullet train proposal decades ago had plans to be electrified in 3,000V DC. This was because most of the already-electrified conventional rail routes in the nation's rail network were electrified in 3,000V DC as well - such lines were re-eletrified into 25,000V 60Hz AC in the later half of the 20th century.
  • With the exception of mail trains delivering mail and light cargo, there are no freight services on ZNX lines as of today: the bullet train proposal also had the operation of freight trains in its routes in mind, also partly reflecting potential military usage of the route.
  • While plans for the ZNX, at least at its time of initial planning, were primarily centered within Zhenia, plans for the bullet train spanned across most of East Tarsis, reflecting Zhenia's sphere of influence at the time.

Resurrection and construction

The ZhenRail J220, the first train of the ZNX, to enter service within ZNX lines. They remained in service as late as 1586.

After the war, passenger rail demand started to stall and eventually decline despite Zhenian economic resurgence and post-war recovery, partly because of the prevalence of road transport via automobiles and the rise of air transport via scheduled airline services across the nation. As a means to stimulate economic growth within the nation via rail and increase passenger capacity of rail, the Ministry of Railways called for a completely newly-built, electrified railroad in 1958 to supplement existing passenger railroads. In the planning phase, the previously-forgotten 'bullet train' proposal from before the war served as reference to the new rail plans: like the bullet train, the new plan would comprise of dedicated high-speed lines for high-speed trains, thus effectively increasing scheduled speed and separating high-speed rail and conventional rail traffic. Unlike the bullet train proposal, however, the new network would be electrified and dedicated to accommodating high-speed electric trains, with the prediction that existing steam and locomotives will be phased out by the end of the century anyway. The proposal was approved by Kim Shimin on May 16, 1549, the same year the routes were finalized and land acquisition began. Most of the land plots acquired by the Ministry of Railways during the Second Great War, as well as already-constructed railroads, were directly integrated into the plan.

Some liberal politicians initially opposed the plans for such high-speed rail proposals, calling it 'an uneconomic overlapping investment on the nation's infrastructure in a time of economic resurgence', and instead vouched for the improvement of conventional railroads as well as further investment on the growing National Expressway network. Some politicians, siding with local authorities where ZNX lines were expected to pass through but not make stops on, often protested against the potential noise and vibration concerns once the railroad was completed, while often demanding against ZhenRail to construct stations in their respective areas. Some erupted into minor riots, although most opposition efforts were largely ignored and suppressed by the Kim Shimin administration while construction proceeded.

The first route built at the time was the Daedo-Changan route, although actual construction was mostly done in tandem with the Trans Golden Arc line. Construction in the Daedo-Changan line, in particular, became an exemplary case for the construction of all future ZNX routes. While some were built directly on level surfaces on land, a significant portion of the route was built on viaducts, bridges and tunnels, as dedicated tracks were used to separate high-speed rail from conventional rail traffic. Most tracks in urban areas were built below the surface, thus minimizing contact with existing conventional rail services: thus, many new stations in urban areas became underground extensions of the existing central station. The process of construction across all areas was by itself an engineering feat; it was during the construction of this line that the Musudan Base Tunnel and Donghae Viaduct, the longest tunnel and viaduct in Zhenian history at the time respectively, had happened, while the network of high-speed rail tunnels under Daedo remain the single largest underground tunnel network in the nation. It is widely speculated that the emphasis to increase scheduled speed at the expense of more tunnels and viaducts alone had almost doubled construction time and cost from what was originally expected.

While construction of the Daedo-Changan route were completed by 1561, it would undergo extensive testing for the next three years. During testing, the initial trains reached a maximum speed of 240 km/h, well above the initial objective of 210 km/h - in scheduled service, however, the initial trains will operate at a maximum speed of 220 km/h. Additional data, including railway signalling and sustained high-speed runs along the network as well as know-how in adjusting timetables for high-speed rail schedules, were collected during the testing phase.From the database collected, it had been initially decided that 96 round trips between Daedo Central Station and Changan South Station - a number that would only increase over time. First scheduled passenger service along the ZNX began on March 1, 1564 - a day still commemorated as National Rail Day in the nation.

Expansion

A ZhenRail G400B operating along the Shinhang-Ariul route.

Following the opening of the Daedo-Changan route, construction of more ZNX-dedicated high-speed tracks, as well as the electrification and upgrades of existing tracks across the nation, became the focus of major infrastructure development projects across the nation. With high-speed passenger rail service along the Daedo-Changan route proving to be a massive success, the Ministry of Transport issued the National High-Speed Rail Construction and Improvement Act in 1568, a bill detailing robust support towards the construction of a significantly larger amount of dedicated ZNX tracks. The passage of the bill, done in September 1569 shortly before the November Revolution, marked a major shift in which the ZNX was to be proliferated throughout the nation; while the initial plan envisioned ZNX trains sharing improved conventional tracks on existing railroad infrastructure aside from major lines in the Golden Arc region and the Danguk Peninsula being the exception, a vast majority of ZNX services were to run on dedicated high-speed tracks, with the sharing of conventional tracks being minimized. The bill, although it raised the costs of high-speed rail projects throughout the nation as a whole, provided an impetus for the network's expansion throughout the nation - to this day, the bill is referred to as "the bill that made the ZNX what it is today".

With the general direction of ZNX construction directed more towards building new lines, some stations were relocated out of existing urban areas.

Several lines were subsequently added to the ZNX network, amid increasing railroad demand throughout the nation and increased governmental support. Among the several ambitious proposals that surfaced throughout the 1570s and 1580s, the Trans Golden Arc Line, spanning from Jin-Nampo in Namhae Province to Zhuhae in Namhae Province, was completed in 1572, while the Shinhang-Geonju Line, the first dedicated high-speed railroad stretching inland from the Golden Arc region, opened in 1577. Additional lines, including the Donghae Line, stretching from Jin-Nampo to Changan along the eastern coasts of the Danguk Peninsula, and the Nambu Central Line, stretching from Jinhae to Ariul, opened throughout the 1580s and 1590s, greatly increasing high-speed rail coverage throughout the nation. While this was not always the case, conventional rail tracks that were expected to be served by ZNX trains, were straightened and improved, resulting in the network reaching every major Zhenian city with a population of over 600,000 by 1608 with the completion of the Seonam Inland Line.

While the ZNX network's exponential expansion was also notable, significant improvements over the service itself were made over the years as well. Advancements in breaking and motor technology, as well as improvements in the signal and safety systems, also led to improvements in speed: by 1590, all ZNX trains were operating at a maximum speed of over 300 km/h with the introduction of the G320 trains in 1593, while the speed limit across all ZNX lines was once again raised to 400 km/h in 1604 with the advent of the G400 trains in the mid-1600s into service. The construction of dedicated high-speed tracks also resulted in the relocation of some stations that were well within urban areas but were previously served by conventional rail services.

Future Maglev plans

Due to increased traffic load on the Trans Golden Arc Line as well as operating speed issues, a future plan to introduce maglev train services around the Golden Arc region has been proposed since the late 1570s. Hailing them as the "future of high-speed rail", the Zhenia National Railway Company has announced plans to ultimately replace C-Class ZNX services with Maglev trains, alleviating railway traffic in the Golden Arc region and other congested regions. ZhenRail has also so far consolidated plans for a Maglev line between Daedo and Jinhae, dubbed the New Golden Arc Line. If successfully implemented, it is expected to be one of the world's first intercity maglev transportation system.

Several maglev train prototypes of varying speeds have undergone testing in the Hambuk ZhenRail Test Facility in Haegeum Province, which includes a 45.5-kilometer Maglev track that will be directly integrated into the New Golden Arc Line upon completion. Developed in tandem with several maglev-based rapid transit lines throughout the nation, many of its speed milestones were achieved in the 17th century AC: most notably, on December 16, 1604, it was reported that a ZhenRail maglev prototype reached a maximum speed of 500 km/h. On May 25, 1610, two prototypes of the future Maglev trains, given the initial designation ZhenRail M500, were showcased to the public for a two-month period in Daedo Central Station: there have been rumors that the M500 introduced that day have minimal differences with the actual production variant, although there are plans to increase the trains' maximum operating speeds to around 550 km/h.

Railway Network

Stretching over almost 20,000 kilometers, the service network of the ZNX has branched out into a comprehensive high-speed railroad network covering most of the nation's population centers. In most cases, the network paved the way for rail to be an alternative against road and air transport in medium-to-long-range passenger transport, leveraging relatively high speed, low congestion and proximity to urban centers as its advantage for convenience. Reflecting such intentions, most stations initially planned are focused in populous and commercially significant urban centers; however, some newer stations were built outside existing urban areas and eschewing existing stations on conventional tracks, both to adhere to the operating speed standards of the system and to stimulate the development of new neighborhoods in the vicinity of urban areas. Nevertheless, the underlying layout of the route and station alike has been planned with increasing the competitiveness of high-speed rail as opposed to other modes of intercity transport. Most railway lines were planned over lines with existing demand in which existing conventional lines were operating close to or over designed capacity, thus minimizing the risk for the railroad providing unprofitable.

Depots

The Zhenia National Railway Company, being in charge of maintaining and operating the entirety of the ZNX network, maintains the following railway depots tasked with the maintenance of ZNX trains:

Testing Facilities

Used almost exclusively for future Maglev train research and testing, the Hambuk ZhenRail Test Facility, which includes a 45.5-kilometer maglev test track, is the primary Maglev research facility operating under the ZNX domain.

Infrastructure

Rails

Most ZNX tracks are slab-like and ballastless, like shown above in the Shinhang-Jinhae segment.

All ZNX trains run on dedicated 1,435-mm standard gauge rails, with the exception of using conventional standard-gauge rails in dense urban areas. At-grade road and pedestrian pathway crossings do not exist in all tracks served by the ZNX, adhering to the philosophy of minimizing outside interference on ZNX tracks; trespassing dedicated ZNX rails via means other than ZNX trains is strictly prohibited by law. Instead of going around obstacles like most older conventional tracks, ZNX tracks use tunnels and viaducts to go under, over and through them, with a minimum curve radius of 3,600 meters. The exits of ZNX tunnels are designed with the upper parts of the tunnel sticking out rather than the opposite, greatly reducing the boom.

ZNX tracks uses continuous welded rail and swingnose crossing points instead of conventional switches to minimize gaps in order to terminate gaps at turnouts and crossings, while also minimizing vibration when operating at high speeds. Tracks are slab-like and ballastless, adding to the durability of the tracks when ZNX trains operate in high speeds; slab tracks are firmly added into concrete bed sections, supported by concrete upstands for increased stability. They are then joined by expansion joints to evade gauge fluctuation and deformation thermal elongation and shrinkage.

Stations

Tracks at the underground segments of Shin Daedo Station, showing an exemplary example of ZNX station layout.

Many ZNX stations across the nation are large, enclosed aboveground structures resembling those of many airport terminals today in terms of size and layout, consisting of glass-covered concourses supported by steel girders and concrete columns, creating a large main hall to function as both the departure and arrival halls of the station. ZNX tracks, in most cases, run parallel to the length of the concourse, mostly on the rear and often away from the main level of the concourse to minimize the interference the tracks cause on the concourse. Most transportation options, including a driveway loop for buses, taxis and other automobiles, are available in front of the station, while urban rail lines are usually linked to the station via underground lines. While an array of benches, ticketing areas and other facilities form up a lion share of the main concourse, recent attempts to incorporate private capital into ZNX stations have resulted in department stores, cinemas and other cultural facilities becoming a part of the station.

The main concourse and the tracks are separated by a gate, where all passenger tickets are clipped or scanned for admittance. The platforms themselves are normally either covered with a large glass canopy altogether (along with the tracks) as a part of the concourse or are covered with canopies of their own, although the former is generally the case with larger stations. Overpasses or underpasses, depending on the station, connect the platforms in case the passenger to move to another platform. Although the platforms feature fewer amenities than the concourse, newspaper stands and small convenience stores are present on many ZNX platforms.

Power and Signalling

All ZNX trains are powered by electricity, primarily relying on high-voltage overhead lines suspended by catenaries supplying electricity at 25 kV 60 Hz AC, with each train receiving power from overhead lines via pantograph. The power from pantographs, in the case of electric multiple units, is distributed to each car almost evenly to reduce the load on the axles of power vehicles. Newer models of the G400 trains, however, are equipped with built-in batteries in the front and back vehicles that are capable of supplying limited power to the train if power is not supplied by overhead lines, allowing for evacuation of the train into safer areas in events of emergency such as natural disasters and power outages.

The Zhenia National Express employs the TVM cab-signalling system in tandem with a comprehensive system of automatic train protection (ATP), which also includes an automatic train stop system as an emergency safety measure. A centralized traffic control system manages the nationwide network, overseeing all tasks related to train movement, tracks, station and schedule. The entire system has been computerized by the early 1990s and has been largely automated to this day, while GPS augmentation into the control system being introduced by 1995. In 2019, a new system employing LTE broadband communication technology has been introduced in the Trans Golden Arc line, allowing for more accurate real-time tracking and control at the end of the central system.

Traffic

Operation

Classes of Service

Classes by Seating

Seats of the Standard Class in a 2 + 2 configuration.

The lowest but often the most common class available on the ZNX is the Standard Class. Primarily aimed for those with tight budgets, Standard Class seats normally arranged in a 2 + 2 seating configuration per row, while each passenger car has 18 rows. Each seat until the EMU-400 has a seat pitch of 960 mm (seats on the G400 have a pitch of 980 mm), all of which are cushioned, adjustable recliner seats. Other amenities include cup holders, overhead storage, foot rests, electrical outlets via USB ports, onboard Wi-Fi since 1597 and AVOD screens on every seat in newer trains. There has, however, been talks on increasing the density of the Standard Class seats into a 3 + 2 configuration rather than the current 2 + 2 configuration.

Seats of the Executive Class in a 2 + 1 configuration.

The Executive Class is a higher class found on ZNX trains, primarily aimed for businessmen and less budget-constrained tourists seeking higher quality than the Standard Class. With its seating arranged in a 2 + 1 configuration per row, all of which are separated by the 'Cell' partitions since 1999 to allow for greater privacy. Normally with 10 or 12 rows in each passenger car, seats in the Executive Class are lined with leather and are reclinable further than the Standard Class, with some newer trains being fully reclinable to 180 degrees. Other amenities in the Executive Class include a personal reading light, electrical outlets, provided headphones, complimentary snacks on shorter routes, AVOD screens and all other amenities on the Standard Class.

The personal compartment of the Sleeper Class is often the most expensive in the entire network.

The highest possible seating class available on ZNX trains are the Sleeper Class, which operate on routes taking at least 10 hours at the speeds possible at given tracks. The necessity of the Sleeper Class on ZNX trains surfaced with the opening of the Trans Golden Arc line in 1981, when the estimated journey was expected to take almost 24 hours to complete, as well as the need to compete with airlines serving similar routes. The Sleeper Class exists in three variants - a personal compartment, a duplex compartment, and a 'quad-pod' compartment, each corresponding to the number of beds in a single given compartment. Although monetarily the most expensive seating class on ZNX trains, amenities of the Sleeper Class are objectively better than those of the other two classes.

Classes by Scheduling

Classes can also be categorized according to scheduling, specifically depending on how many stops the train makes and the time the trains depart. Limited trains (Zhenian: 특급열차), stopping only at major and designated stations, tend to complete the journey faster than their local counterparts, although they are around 10% more expensive than their Regular counterparts. Although the name should not be confused with non-ZNX trains, local trains (Zhenian: 각역정열차) stop at every ZNX-designated station and may often run on conventional tracks rather than dedicated high-speed tracks, resulting in 5-10% lower fares than their regular counterparts. Regular Trains (Zhenian: 일반열차) are the middle line between rapid and local trains, stopping at all major stations and some selected stations that vary by train and time - they are the standard for most pricing examples of the ZNX. Nighttime trains (Zhenian: 야간열차), are priced at around 20% lower prices than their daytime counterparts, although there is no such difference in Sleeper Class seats. Among these, limited and regular trains are classified as C-level trains, while local and nighttime trains are categorized as G-level trains as per ZhenRail's passenger rail classification scheme.

Fares and Ticketing

In principle, all seats in the Zhenia National Express are priced proportionately by distance. As of January 1610, for a Standard Class seat, each kilometer costs a traveler around $0.18 on high speed tracks ($0.14 for every kilometer on a conventional track), with an additional ticketing charge equal to $3.30, a seating charge equivalent to around $4.00 (which is ignored if the traveler chooses the free seat option) and miscellaneous costs that add up to around $0.80 at the end of the traveler; in theory, the shortest possible ride on the ZNX in a kilometer-long conventional track would cost a minimum of $4.94 at the end of the customer. Seats on the Executive Class increases the price per kilometer by 40% and the seating charge by 50%, while seats on the Sleeper Class on long-haul routes start from an additional equivalent of $120 for every 1,200 kilometers (rounded), have a seating charge equivalent to around $12.00 and ultimately $0.42 per kilometer on the customer regardless of track type. The total price excluding the ticketing charge would increase by 6 percent if the train of choice is a C-class train. Long-distance trips, however, are subject to ZhenRail's pricing policies that reduce the fare per kilometer.

Both on-site and online ticket sales networks are available for purchasing the tickets on the Zhenia National Express; both processes are essentially the same, mostly differing in the medium through which the ticketing is done. At the end of the customer, the customer requests a certain quantity of tickets for a certain route and class, either one way or return; with input from the clerk (on-site ticketing) or through the online service (online ticketing), the system returns with the set of available tickets fitting the criteria, allowing for the customer to choose among them. After the ticket is generated through this process and the subsequent monetary transaction is made, the sale is completed. Combined tickets between ZNX and non-ZNX services are also available through a similar process, as the Zhenia National Railway Company operates both ZNX and non-ZNX services; however, it is directly compatible with most intra-urban public transport means such as subways. Tickets can be reserved up to 90 days in advanced and be cancelled without a cancellation fee until 24 hours before the train's departure. Cancellation is available through various means, although it does not have to be the same way the ticketing was originally done. A cancellation fee of 20% of the original ticket fee applies for cancellations between 24 hours and 6 hours prior to departure; the percentage rises to 40%, 60% and finally 100% (meaning that sales are final by such point) between 6 hours and 90 minutes, 90 minutes and 15 minutes prior to departure, and finally after the train's departure respectively.

Ridership

Ownership and Maintenance

As a direct asset of the Zhenia National Railway Company, all tracks and trains of the Zhenia National Express are owned and maintained by ZhenRail: like all other conventional tracks owned and operated by ZhenRail, the maintenance of the track is the responsibility of the Zhenia National Railway Authority, a subsidiary of ZhenRail. While there have been several movements to privatize and create a notional 'Zhenia National Express Corporation' as a partial subsidiary separated from ZhenRail in terms of funding, such proposals have been met with great opposition among most employees and executives of ZhenRail, as well as the Ministry of Territories and Transport, who have repeatedly emphasized rail as a key public commodity.

International high-speed rail connections, the need of which has been emphasized by the plans for the West Hanmaric High-Speed Rail spearheaded by Zhenia, will also primarily be managed by ZhenRail to protect domestic rail demand against foreign companies that are expected to operate on Zhenian lines. While foreign companies, with approval by the Ministry of Territories and Transport on their fares and schedules in advance, are allowed to operate high-speed rail services within Zhenian railroads as of now, there have been proposals to cut back on allowing foreign companies operating in Zhenian railroads by mandating the formation of joint ventures with ZhenRail, at an attempt to consolidate ZhenRail's hold on the Zhenian market and protect domestic industry.

Rolling Stock

Passenger Trains

  • J240: The first dedicated high-speed trains to enter ZNX service, with a maximum speed of 240 km/h: in practice, however, they operated at a maximum speed of around 220 km/h. Hundreds of trains were produced from 1973 to 1984 and saw service along the Daedo-Changan route as well as the Trans Golden Arc route. While the J240 would not be classified as a high-speed train in Zhenian standards today, it retains the record as the nation's first high-speed train to enter service.
  • J270: An improved variant of the J240 with improved motor and braking, as well as an increased maximum speed of 270 km/h. Produced from 1573 to 1583.
  • J300: The first high-speed trains within ZNX service to break the maximum speed of 300 km/h, introduced in 1584. Replaced older J240 units that had remained in ZNX service until the early 1590s.
  • J320: The last locomotive-powered trains in ZNX service, as well as the fastest. Introduced in 1590, it had a maximum operating speed of around 320 km/h, although it seldom operates at the speed: its actual operation speed is around 305 km/h.
  • G350: The first electric multiple unit (EMU) trains introduced in ZNX service, with a maximum speed of around 350 km/h. It is primarily an electric multiple unit selected in favor of less strain on the tracks, as well as improved acceleration and braking capabilities.
  • G400: An improvement from the G350, as well as the first operational high-speed train with a top speed exceeding 400 km/h. It has significantly improved in maximum and operational speed, acceleration and deceleration rate and tilting capability in older lines.
  • G280: A series of high-speed electric multiple unit (EMU) trains intended for short-to-medium-haul routes in semi-high speed routes throughout the country. It was first introduced to ZhenRail service in 1608, with a maximum operating speed of 280 kilometers.

Experimental trains

  • ZhenRail HSR-350: A tilting train developed in the late 1990s to test sustained high-speed operations on conventional tracks by tilting in curves. While its technology has been implemented on the G350 and the G400 series, the HSR-350 has largely been abandoned in favor of straightening existing lines, building more dedicated lines and thereby improving scheduled speeds.
  • ZhenRail 400 MAX: An experimental train in the early 2000s to experiment the feasibility of operating in maximum speeds of 400 km/h. Used by ZhenRail until 2015 to carry out various experiments, it has had mixed results.

Maintenance trains

International expansion

Exports

In August 1608, the Zhenia National Railway Company announced the sales of a total of 322 EMU-400 vehicles and associated training services to the Great Northern Lines, which primarily services Edury. The first EMU-400 trains are set to be delivered in Edury in February 1610 and would operate through intercity routes between major cities of the nations, including the high-demand route between Edurre and Volkstadt.

International service

Future development

Speed increases

A ZNX G350 passing through a bell mouth tunnel applied to newer ZNX lines.

An increasing number of G400 trains, with a maximum speed of 400 km/h, have been replacing older J300 and J320 trains that had seen service for extended periods of time, resulting in an overall increase in maximum speed on such lines. While existing rail traffic and noise pollution concerns (particularly tunnel boom) have more or less restricted the maximum speed to around 360 km/h in several segments, plans to increase overall speed by improving tunnels, straightening existing lines and replacing conventional tracks with dedicated tracks are underway. In particular, the implementation of {{|bell mouth|bell-shaped}} tunnel entrances to minimize noise concerns are underway, primarily in older tunnels constructed before 1570.

Extension into the Haedong Islands

Introduction of high-speed freight services

Seobu Line Extension

The Seobu High-Speed Line plan is set to form the new core of the extension of ZNX services into a dedicated high-speed line between Ariul and Jangsan, as well as smaller western cities in-between. While a direct, 14-times-a-day high-speed rail service between Jangsan and Daeheung already connects the city to the remainder of the network, it runs on electrified conventional tracks, which has proven to be an issue in operating speeds in the Seobu Line as well as the timetables, as the tracks are shared with all other conventional trains, including freight trains. In October 19, 1609, the Ministry of Territories and Transport approved plans to establish dedicated tracks in the segment, freeing the existing conventional line from track congestion. This part, dubbed the Seobu Line Extension - in light of the existing Seobu Line, which spans between Geonju and Ariul - is set to be completed by 1616.

See Also