Jinhae

From Themys Project
Jinhae
Jinhae Metropolitan Municipality
Flag of Jinhae.
Flag
Nickname(s): 
City of the West, World's Gateway.
Motto(s): 
새로운 동쪽의 관문.
("A New Gateway of the East.")
Country Zhenia
Metropolitan MunicipalityJinhae Metropolitan Muicipality (coterminous)
Subdivisions
Districts
  • Haejin-gu
  • Seosan-gu
Jinhae foundedc. 1004 AC
District DivisionMetropolitan Municipality
Government
 • TypeJinhae Metropolitan Assembly
 • Elected bodyJinhae Metropolitan Assembly
 • Metropolitan AdminstratorJinsu Choi (L)
 • Sangseowon Representative5 Sangseowon Representatives
Area
 • Jinhae Metropolitan Municipality6,752.56 km2 (2,607.18 sq mi)
 • Land6,527.02 km2 (2,520.10 sq mi)
 • Water225.54 km2 (87.08 sq mi)
Highest elevation
318.9 m (1,046.3 ft)
Lowest elevation
−1.6 m (−5.2 ft)
Population
 (1610)
 • Density225.54/km2 (584.1/sq mi)
 • Metro
15,164,561
Demonym(s)Jinhaean
Time zoneUTC+08:00 (Zhenia Eastern Standard Zone (ZEST))
ZIP Code
00101-00190
Zhenia National Area CodeJH
City FlowerJin Orchid
Websitewww.jinhaecity.zhen.gov

Jinhae (Seomun: 辰海, Jinmun: 진해), formally the Jinhae Metropolitan Municipality (Seomun: 辰海廣域市, Jinmun: 진해광역시, pronounced Jinhae Gwangyeok-si), is a metropolitan municipality of Zhenia. the second most populous city of Zhenia. Being one of the five metropolitan municipalities in the nation, it is governed by the Jinhae Metropolitan Government. It is situated just north of the delta of the Taimir River and faces the Balhae Inlet, an inland sea of the Gulf of Danguk, to the east, while bordering the Balhae, Changbaek and Imhae Provinces respectively in clockwise order. It is the second-most populous city in the nation, being home to over 15 million residents: the city, alongside other subsidiary cities in provinces of Imhae and Balhae, form the Taimir Delta Megalopolis, the second-largest metropolitan region in the nation.

Situated just north of the Taimir River's delta and facing the Gulf of Danguk, what is now Jinhae was considered an important port functioning as a major shipping port altogether handling the riverine traffic throughout the Taimir River basin: control over the city has been within the attention of several mainland Zhenian dynasties, as the control of the Taimir delta essentially meant rule over the Taimir River basin. The significance of the city as one of the most important cities in mainland Zhenia rose following the Treaty of Sanggyeong, when it was designated as one of the first ten ports that were to be open to the Shindanese Government, with the Royal Shindanese Navy establishing a garrison in the city by 1401 AC. It became a directly-controlled city of Shindan in 1405, becoming one of the central nodes in which Shindanese rule was exerted in the mainland. The city underwent extensive industrialization during the Empire of Zhenia and eventually the First Republic; major segments of the city underwent redevelopment during the Third Republic, taking shape into a trade and financial hub in the mainland as it is today.

Jinhae remains one of the most economically and politically important Zhenian cities in the mainland: its metropolitan area is home to one of the largest metropolitan regions in both Zhenia and the West Hanmaric, with the combined metropolitan region being home to almost 30 million resident. The Port of Jinhae, with recent expansions, remains the largest container port in the nation, handling over 35 million TEUs in 2019, while remaining a major entrepot in modern commerce. It is also home to the annual Zhenia International Trade Exposition, the single largest trade exposition in the nation. Significant redevelopment upon older neighborhoods throughout the city has raised further concerns regarding gentrification and the significant altering of the city's demographics, politics and culture, as well as the city's identity.

Name

History

Prehistory and antiquity

Middle and Early Modern ages

Modern history

Following the Treaty of Sanggyeong in 1386, Jinhae, alongside nine other ports in the western coast of the Gulf of Danguk, were designated as treaty ports that would come under Shindanese rule. Jinhae received significantly higher attention than the remainder of the ports, due to its unique position of having both a deepwater port and a riverine port that offered access to the upstream Taimir River basin.

In 1401, King Jeongjo of Shindan relocated the Protectorate-General of Balhae from Suripo in modern-day Haedo-gu district, consolidating the city as a node of Shindanese rule in the mainland.

Geography

A satellite view of the region around Jinhae and the Taimir River Delta. Jinhae is visible on the north shore.

While the old settlement of Jinhae was located around 5 kilometres inland, around what is now Haebang Hill, most of modern-day Jinhae is built near the northern estuaries of the Taimir River, around the rich alluvial plain formed by the deposition from the Taimir River Delta, as well as land reclamation projects along the river and coast. As a result, most of the area administered by Jinhae is low in elevation, with an average elevation of lower than 10 meters (33 feet); its lowest point is located near the Port of Jinhae, while its highest point is Mount Muhak, at 318.9 meters, which forms the city's border with Changbaek Province. Since most of the area around Jinhae consists of sandy soil, most high-rise buildings in the city have deep concrete fundamentals stretching down to bedrock to avoid sinking into the ground.

Most of the geography around Jinhae has been shaped by the existence of the Taimir River, which is also the longest river in the nation. Even setting aside the existence of the alluvial plain as a result of the river's delta, the city is well-known for its rich water resources and is home to several smaller streams, rivers, lakes and reservoirs, although some newer reservoirs, with the ultimate goal of supplying additional water to the growing metropolis, have been built between causeways and the mainland along the coast. Additional canals that act as bypasses between the mainstream Taimir River and the sea have been built within city limits, at an attempt to control water flow along the river.

Climate

Jinhae, Zhenia
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
46
 
 
9
3
 
 
70
 
 
14
5
 
 
100
 
 
19
12
 
 
200
 
 
24
15
 
 
256
 
 
29
20
 
 
300
 
 
30
23
 
 
242
 
 
31
24
 
 
238
 
 
30
23
 
 
160
 
 
28
21
 
 
87
 
 
23
15
 
 
64
 
 
19
10
 
 
39
 
 
15
7
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

Situated just north of the Tropic of Cancer, Jinhae has a humid subtropical climate (Koppen Cfa). Due to it being under the influence of local monsoon winds, its monsoon seasons on average start earlier and end later than the much of the Golden Arc region, with monsoons starting in late April and ending by early October. The city experiences four distinct seasons, although its low temperatures rarely fall below freezing even under the influence of dry, cold continental winds in the winter. Its long summers are hot and humid, with most of it overlapping with the monsoon season: some downpoors and freak thunderstorms, as a result of atmospheric instability, are also observed in the summer months. The city is particularly susceptible to typhoons from late May to August, although no considerable damage has been observed since the 2010 typhoon Chammae.

Early spring and autumn are regarded as the most pleasant seasons in the city, both directly before and after the monsoon seasons. Temperatures in the summer can be extreme, with an average of 10.1 days exceeding 35 °C (95 °F) annually. The lowest temperature recorded in Jinhae was −4.8 °C (23°F), measured on January 15, 1979, while the highest extreme in Jinhae was 38.9 °C (102.2°F), measured on August 1, 2018, during a series of record-breaking nationwide heat waves in 2018. The effects of global warming and subsequent climate change is expected to bring more extreme climate trends in the region, particularly in the summer seasons with hotter summers with higher concentrations of rain over a few days.

The waters surrounding Jinhae are significantly influenced by algal blooms in the summer seasons, which in part are aided by the sediment and microorganisms entering the Gulf via the Taimir River. The decomposing algae in the area, releasing significant amounts of hydrogen sulfide gas, has resulted in odor resembling those of rotten eggs in some extreme cases. Changing currents amid climate change, however, have resulted in stronger currents entering the Balhae Inlet all the way to the waters near Jinhae, resulting in less accumulation of algal blooms in the area as a whole.

Politics

Government

The Jinhae Metropolitan Government exerts administrative control as the executive body of Jinhae's government.

Jinhae is primarily governed by the Jinhae Metropolitan Government, a provincial-level government exercising equal rights as nearby provinces. The government is headed by Metropolitan Administrator Jinsu Choi of the Liberal Party, who remains the first Metropolitan Administrator of Jinhae to have been democratically re-elected, while the city's elected body comprises of the Jinhae Metropolitan Assembly with a total of 87 assemblymen as of 2020. On the national government, Jinhae has been represented by 5 Sangseowon representatives and 16 National Assemblymen.

Law enforcement

Demographics

Education

Healthcare

Economy

Finance

Jinhae's financial sector is the second-largest in the nation, only behind that of Daedo.

Industry

Transportation

Public transport

The Jinhae Metro is home to the second-largest urban rapid transit network in the nation, closely behind that of Daedo and the Greater Capital area. Combined with commuter rail, it serves almost 3 billion annual riders, linking the city with several nearby cities.

Roads and rails

Since the genesis of modern transport in Zhenia, Jinhae was developed as a major node of transportation networks in mainland Zhenia, being a key converging point in the nation's road and rail network as a whole. It is situated at the intersection of four major trunk railroads that traverse the nation - the Golden Arc Main Line, the Taimir Line, the Jingeon Line and the Balhae Line - more than any other major city in mainland Zhenia.

Jinhae's intercity passenger rail demand is primarily handled by four hub stations across the city - Jinhae Central Station, Jinhae North Station, Taimir Delta Station and Jinhae West Station - all of which split passenger rail demands relatively evenly compared to other cities. Jinhae Central Station, the largest of the four hub stations, is also the third-busiest railway station by number of passengers. All four hub stations are served by ZNX trains as well as other services that connect Jinhae to several major cities in the nation.

Air and water transport

File:Shin Jinhae International Airport view.jpg
Shin Jinhae International Airport is the nation's second-busiest airport.
File:Port of Jinhae view.jpg
The Port of Jinhae, despite facing fierce competition both domestic and international, remains the nation's largest shipping port.

Jinhae is one of the nation's busiest aviation hubs. It is home to three airports - Jinhae City Airport, Songsan International Airport and Shin Jinhae International Airport. Shin Jinhae International Airport is the city's largest international hub, serving over 78 million passengers in 1609 AC, handling most of the nation's long-haul and short-haul international flights, while the remaining two airports primarily handle short-haul passenger and cargo flights and select short-haul flights respectively. In particular, the flight route between Shin Jinhae International Airport and Daedo's Daedo Capital International Airport is the single busiest route in the nation by number of passengers, hauling around 7.2 million passengers as of 1609. Shin Jinhae International Airport in particular is the nation's second-largest passenger hub, behind Daedo Capital International Airport, while it is one of the two airports in the nation offering direct flights to all six of the world's continents.

The Port of Jinhae, maintained by the Shin Jinhae Ports Corporation, remains the nation's single largest container port as well as one of the world's largest, handling over 35 million TEUs in 1609 AC, despite facing fierce competition from Zhuhae and Gwangseong in recent years. As the city's primary seaport, it has undergone major expansions to the north amid concerns that it is difficult to handle larger container vessels due to its location. A significant portion of ship traffic traversing the Taimir River terminate in the North Taimir Delta Maritime Hub, situated around 1.4 kilometers southwest of the Port of Jinhae: the two ports are directly connected by industrial roads and freight rail, although there are plans to expand the Port of North Taimir Delta Hub to the Port of Jinhae. In addition to freight traffic, Jinhae is the eastern terminus of the river ferries along the Taimir River, as well as a major cruise port as the gateway to the Gulf of Danguk: in 2010, the Port of Jinhae altogether handled 301 cruise ships and 2.03 million passengers via its seaport.

Culture and contemporary life

Architecture

Music

Sports

Notable people

See also