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Special City
Daedo Special City
Flag of Daedo.
City of the East, Dragon City, The City, The Sea Dragon
고요한 아침의 수도
("Capital of the Morning Calm.")
Country Zhenia
Special CityDaedo Special City (coterminous)
Daedo foundedc. 68 AD
District DivisionSpecial City
 • TypeDaedo Metropolitan Assembly
 • Elected bodyDaedo Metropolitan Assembly
 • Special City AdministratorSeungjun Jin (N)
 • Sangseowon Representative5 Sangseowon Representatives
 • Special City5,524.82 km2 (2,133.14 sq mi)
 • Land5,397.2 km2 (2,083.9 sq mi)
 • Water127.62 km2 (49.27 sq mi)
Highest elevation
812.3 m (2,665.0 ft)
Lowest elevation
−3.0 m (−9.8 ft)
 • Density4,274.76/km2 (11,071.6/sq mi)
 • Metro
Time zoneUTC+08:00 (Zhenia Eastern Standard Zone (ZEST))
National Postal Code
Zhenia National Area CodeDA
City FlowerZhenian Peony

Daedo (Seomun: 大都, Jinmun: 대도, meaning 'Great Capital' in Zhenian), formally Daedo Special City (Seomun: 大都特別市, Jinmun: 대도특별시, pronounced Daedo Teukbyeol-si), is the capital and most populous city of the Republic of Zhenia. As the only city in the nation administratively designated as a special city, it is governed by the Daedo Metropolitan Government. It faces the Gulf of Danguk to the west and is surrounded by Songhwa Province in the remaining three directions, while the Danbon River, before emptying into the Gulf of Danguk in the Danbon Estuary to the city's southwest around Seongnam, passes right through it. Subdivided into 24 districts and home to over 21.6 million residents, its metropolitan area, the Greater Capital Megalopolis, which also includes adjacent cities in Gyeongin Province and parts of Songhwa Province, is the single largest metropolitan area in the nation as well as some of the largest in the world, being home to almost 40 million residents.

With historical records detailing its existence dating its origins back to 358 BC, Daedo became the capital of the Eastern Zhen in 571, after the imperial house relocated from modern-day Sanggyeong. Being burned to the ground by the Kharlin Empire and rebuilt as a regional economic hub under Shindanese rule, Emperor Seongjo declared the city the new capital of the Empire, initiating its age as the nation's capital. Remaining the nation's capital after the transition from empire to republic, Daedo to become a prominent commercial and financial hub in the Tarsis-Hanmaric region as a whole. While the city was significantly damaged during the a series of air raids in the later half of the Second Great War, the reconstruction effort that followed the war saw profound changes and further planned urban expansion, including the construction of Shin Daedo along the coast. In the later half of the 20th century, Daedo has retaken its place as the primary political, economic and cultural hub of the region, hosting an array of global summits and events including the 1572 Daedo Summer World Games and the 1598 Daedo International Exposition.

Daedo today is an important global power city, as well as the nation's political, economic, financial, cultural and educational center, being regarded as one of the three primary global power cities of the world. It is home to a larger number of the headquarters of the nation's top 100 companies than any other province-level area, being home to the headquarters of 37 of the nation's 100 largest companies, while the Daedo Stock Exchange, one of the largest stock exchanges in the world by market capitalization is located in the city's booming Shin Daedo New Town. Daedo is also a major hub for the nation's expressway, railway, high-speed rail and air transportation, with Daedo Capital International Airport being ranked among the busiest in the nation since the late 1590s. Being home to 65 universities, some of which are considered the most prestigious in the world, including the University of Daedo and the Zhenia Advanced Institute of Technology, the city is the center of the nation's higher academia, science and technology. It has been widely praised as the "most cosmopolitan city in the East" both by domestic and international media, as well as some of the most affluent city by generated wealth and number of millionaire residents.


Before acquiring its current name, Daedo has passed through multiple names in the past: it began to appear as Jindo (Zhenian: 秦都/진도) according to historical records written during the later stages of the Zhen dynasty, due to the fact that it became the capital of Jin Province around 330. After the Jin dynasty relocated its capital to modern-day Daedo, its name was revised to Junggyeong (Zhenian: 중경/重京, literally meaning 'Doubled Capital') - a name that was maintained until it was razed by the Kharlin Empire. With its status being readjusted as a secondary, regional capital as the Shindan dynasty relocated to modern-day Hansan, it lost its capital title and its name was subsequently revised to Jungdo (Zhenian: 중도/重都), containing the same meaning as Junggyeong but to evade confusion with Junggyeong in mainland Zhenia.

Its current name, Daedo, literally meaning 'Great Capital' in Zhenian, was given by Emperor Seongjo in 1868, when the city was designated as the new capital of the newly-established Empire of Zhenia. Although other names, including Jinju (Zhenian: 진주/秦州), Jinsung (Zhenian: 진성/秦成) and some of the city's older names were also up for consideration, it is known that Emperor Seongjo personally vouched for the name Daedo to signify the unification of Zhenia, as well as to offer a blessing to the city's future. Since then, Daedo has been the most commonly-used term to refer to the city, although the name Jungdo is occasionally used in certain contexts when highlighting the city's historical contexts is necessary.


Although most of its walls do not exist to this day, some sections of Muheungseong are found to this day, around Mount Gwangjin in northeastern Daedo.

Early history

The earliest traces of human habitation in the area comprising Daedo Special City were found in the caves near the southeastern cliffs of Mount Gwangjin in the northeastern parts of modern-day Habuk-gu district, just north of the Danbon River. Several homo erectus fossils dating back to around 280,000 BC were discovered in such caves, remaining one of the oldest remains of human life in the western half of the Danguk Peninsula to this day. Several remains of paleolithic homo sapiens, dating back to approximately 25,000 years ago, were also found, although their sites were far closer to modern-day Jangcheon, a tributary stream of the Danbon River. Remains of neolithic settlements are also found in several sites across Daedo, although they frequently appear in flood plain regions directly adjacent to the Danbon River as well as riverbanks facing tributary rivers of the Danbon River, while there are speculations of more remains that are submerged beneath the current flow of the Danbon River.

The first major settlement on Daedo was Muheungseong, near the current site of Gwangjin Fortress, located around 9.4 kilometers northeast of the current city center. Although there are few traces of its remains seldom found near Gwangjin Fortress today, Muheungseong was said to have been a major military outpost for the State of Dan and has become key evidence in tracing the extent of the State of Dan within the Danguk Peninsula. Muheungseong, however, is estimated to have risen further in relative significance during the Zhen dynasty, as a new city, Gukjinseong, was built on the alluvial plains to its southwest. As the city hosting the winter palace of the Zhen dynasty, Muheungseong and Gukjinseong co-existed in tandem as wartime and peacetime winter capitals respectively, with Muheungseong in particular leveraging its location of being atop Mount Gwangjin. Some city walls of Gukjinseong remain in the area and are often discovered near the Old City sections of Daedo to this day. Given its geographical, strategic and economic importance, both Gukjinseong and Muheungseong had been laid siege upon and sacked by rebellions during the later days of the Zhen dynasty, while Muheungseong was one of the last strongholds of the Zhen dynasty in the Danguk Peninsula during the Hanmo-Wugwang Rebellion.

Before the Shindan dynasty

The East Gate of Junggyeong, built during the Daehwa dynasty. Very few of Daedo before the Shindan dynasty survive to this day.

While the city itself was largely abandoned after the demise of the Zhen dynasty, the city rose to prominence once again as Junggyeong (Zhenian: 중경/重京), when it was designated as the capital of the Eastern Zhen and Jin dynasties. The founding statesmen of the Jin dynasty had decided to build a new city over the remains of Gukjinseong, mostly as a symbolical measure of signifying a new age. The main castle walls, which were extended continuously between the 6th and 9th centuries, following the ridges of what is now the Shinsa Basin, secured the new capital city within castle walls and filled gaps formed by the extension of alluvial plains from the south, while number of fortresses circling the capital city, some along the Danbon River and some situated on the mountains north of modern-day Daedo, were also built in defense of Junggyeong - the walls alone took almost three years to finish. With the city following the grid layout used in planned cities dating back to the Zhen dynasty, Junggyeong at the time was one of the largest planned cities in pre-modern Zhenian history, a record not surpassed until the rebuilding of Hansan in the 14th century.

Over time, the city grew along the alluvial plains of the walled Junggyeong city, although urban expansion was rather restricted near fortresses surrounding Junggyeong. Over the years, the population composition around the city was stratified according to social class, with the ruling class and higher members of society living within castle walls, while farmers, peasants and the like lived farther from the Royal Palace and closer to the edges of the walled city, as well as towns outside castle walls. Reflecting this, the area around 10 leagues away from the castle wall (Zhenian: 성저십리/城底十里) were also under the direct administration of Junggyeong, a term still used to refer to the area around the older parts of the city. Today, the area known as Old City in Daedo normally comprise of the area within the castle walls built during the Daehwa dynasty as well as the surrounding area 10 leagues away from the walled city.

The golden age of Daedo seemed to have come to a halt with the demise of the Jin dynasty; while it remained the capital of successive states over the years, it was continuously sacked and laid siege upon during the years of unrest. The city was also burned to the ground during a fire during the Kharlin invasions in the 8th century, which left a vast majority of the city in ruins. Although the city was slowly rebuilt after the Kharlin invasions and subsequent northern revolts were contained under Daehwa, the destruction of the city during Kharlin invasions was detrimental to its fate as a capital city; its destruction was one of the key reasons Shindan relocated its royal capital to Hansan in the northeast, while tens of thousands of residents were also relocated to Hansan in the process. Some historians, however, speculate to this day that the relocation and intentional neglection of Daedo was a political move by early Shindanese rulers to weaken the political influence former Late Daehwa statesmen that remained as prominent local leaders.

Shindan dynasty and Empire of Zhenia

Upon its establishment, the Shindan dynasty relocated the royal capital to modern-day Hansan, demoting the then-burnt ruins of modern-day Daedo; however, while the city was rebuilt during the rule of King Taejong, it was resurrected as the prefectural seat of the Gaewon Prefecture, managing most of the areas that will be designated as Daedo Special City in the modern day. Most of the walls still intact today, although on a smaller scale compared to the walls built during the Daehwa dynasty, were rebuilt during this period. Leveraging its location along the Danbon River, Daedo, along with Seongnam to its southwest directly in the delta, grew to be a major gateway of Shindan's inland water freight network leading to Hansan. While most of the maritime trade activities were outsourced to Seongnam, Daedo remained a major stopping point for inland freight transport both along the Danbon River and by land, situated in the middle of the alluvial plain covering most of the Danguk Peninsula's western half. Further development of the city came with the construction of the North Gaewon Canal during the Shindan dynasty to improve shipping access towards the gulf.

The status of Daedo as the capital city was reinstated as Emperor Seongjo formally declared it the capital of the Empire of Zhenia, elevating it from wartime capital status and permanently stripping Hansan of its capital city status; while the Kingdom of Shindan would still house its family clan in Hansan, the Kingdom itself, as well as the Empire as a whole, would be formally ruled from the new city. It was also during this time that Daedo received its current name given and vouched for by Emperor Seongjo himself, meaning 'Great Capital'. While there had been proposals for Shindan to continue reusing the Daehwa dynasty's Royal Palace in the Old City in modern-day Jung-gu, Emperor Seongjo deciding on constructing the capital district, including the imperial palace, completely from scratch, with imperial assets in the Old City converted to museums open to the public. While this was met with great opposition from many of the empire's prominent statesmen, many of the newer, Azora-educated bureaucrats welcomed and supported the decision, claiming it was "the way forward for the people of the Empire".

After being decided as the Empire's new capital city, what is now the city's Sudo-gu district (often translated as 'Capital District' in some contexts) was built away from the Old City; monuments such as the Daeseong Palace, the National Parliament Hall and many of the buildings of governmental ministries, as well as the first bridges traversing the Danbon River, were built during Emperor Seongjo's rule. Districts south of the Danbon River, such as the Shinsa and Daeseong districts, were developed towards the turn of the century, initially as residential areas for the now-booming city. Emperor Seongjo also launched a series of gargantuan public works projects to reorganize the city's general layout around Sudo-gu district and Daedo's Old City area, building wide new boulevards, new central markets, aqueducts, sewers, parks and railways. While the first railway line to Daedo opened in the 1430s, migration spurred primarily after the reorganization of the city during Emperor Seongjo's rule. The adjustment of the city's domain also took place, taking its current shape in 1467.

Republic of Zhenia

Skyline of Daedo's central business district in Shinsa-gu today.
High-rise residential towers have dominated urban housing schemes in Daedo's urban areas since the beginning of the 16th century AC.
A partial view of Shin Daedo New Town, one of the largest development projects in the city's history.

The transition from Empire to the Republic of Zhenia as a result of the December Revolution retained its status as the nation's capital city; while a number of changes were implemented into the city's Sudo-gu district, including the conversion of Daeseong Palace into the residence and office of the Chancellor, the transition of government retained the city's status, as well as its name, as a capital city. On December 8, 1499, the city merged with nearby prefectures, forming the nation's first Metropolitan Municipality, managing both districts that were once part of the City of Daedo and other rural prefectures under one administrative body. Although it was at first directly administered by the central government, it received its own autonomy with the establishment of the Special City Government in 1508.

Daedo's city center had been designed around both roads and major railway stations in high density, as laid out in the Daedo Urban Development Plan released in 1504; suburban rail throughout Daedo were built at street level with their own right of way, a format that has remained more or less the same to this day. With the introduction of a rail-centered development plan, new city centers emerged around major stations, as were the case with Shinsa-gu and Yanghwapo-gu districts. It was also during the first half of the 16th century that the growth of the city's urban area extended to the Danbon River waterfront and eventually south of the Danbon River into the Hanam and Hadong regions, amid increasing height and development restrictions in the Old City region. A set of green belts were preemptively introduced to the outskirts of Daedo, effectively limiting the city's expansion within the coverage of railway stations and thus increasing the density of development in existing urban regions. Further construction of underground transit lines, including the Daedo Metropolitan Subway, further proliferated concentration and growth within Daedo's city center.

Daedo experienced significant levels of destruction during the later stages of the Second Great War amid continuous air raids in the city using incendiary bombs: the combined damage of Daedo during the Second Great War is said to have reduced its population by a factor of 55%, with over 300,000 buildings were burned or demolished in the process. After the war, while some residents resettled in 'liberty towns' (Zhenian: 해방촌), many of those who lost their homes were force to live in makeshift huts near the remains of destruction until the city was gradually reconstructed over the course of the Second and Third Republics. During the city's reconstruction, Zhenian city planners kept the general premise of centering the city's expansion around urban rail lines and major railway stations; however, this time, the city was reorganized with a more road-oriented grid network in mind. The city was reconstructed and expanded in several phases, with several neighborhoods and townships being redeveloped. While the Third Republic initially planned to extend national expressways into the city center in the process, it was met with great levels of citizen-led opposition, resulting in the plan being aborted in 1553.

Towards the 1560s, Daedo saw further expansion south of the Danbon River, at an attempt to cater to the ever-increasing residential demands of the city. Unlike older parts of the city, most of the Hanam region was developed into high-density areas since its genesis - a plan that had the intention of preemptively orienting more vertical growth and preventing urban sprawl. The 1560s became the tipping point for the core of Daedo's development to shift away from the Habuk region and towards the Danbon River waterfront and Hanam region: it was around this time that, coupled with the reestablishment of the Zhenian middle class, that the Hanam region became synonymous with rich towns. It was also during the Third Republic that the city's skyline began to be overtaken by newer skyscrapers in the Hanam region. Amid such growth, the city received great fanfare with the hosting of the 1572 Daedo World Games.

After the November Revolution, restrictions in the outer regions of the green belts were loosened for the first time, which came in tandem with the designation of new towns in outer Daedo to decentralize residential and commercial demand. Supplying over 800,000 new homes in outer Daedo from 1572 to 1582, new towns successfully pushed further development out of the now-overcrowded city center. Inland 'liberty towns' were reconstructed into high-rise complexes since the late 1580s at the face of urban reorganization, which overall had mixed results. Continuous urban development and the saturation of the city's existing business districts eventually called for a series of coastal development projects, with the pinnacle being the Shin Daedo New Town project that is set to be completed in 1613. The city saw a new boom in finance, technology and commerce with the turn fo the century, adding the technology sector as another mainstay of the city's economy and social structure.



Daedo is located in the west coast of central Danguk Peninsula, where the Danbon River bends and flows from northeast to southwest, ultimately flowing out to the Golden Arch via the Danbon Delta. A vast majority of the city’s urban area is situated in the alluvial plain along the Danbon River and surrounding lesser rivers. Due to its inherent topography, most of the city itself is relatively flat with an average elevation of around 40 m (131 ft), with patches of hilly regions in sections farther away from the river. Most notable hilly regions in the city are the Haseo-gu and Yeongdo-gu districts northwest of the Danbon River, sections of Hanam-gu directly south of the Danbon River, and Donhwa District in the northern side of the city.

Several mountains, mostly branching out from the Nanglim Ranges in central Zhenia, dot the city’s border regions, most notably Mount Jungmu and Cheonjin. The highest point within city limits is the peak of Mount Jungmu at 812.3 meters (2,665 ft), which is also the highest point in the Nanglim Ranges and the Greater Capital Area as a whole. Mountains within Daedo’s urban areas provide green space and recreational areas for Daedoites.

While almost all of Daedo’s city limits are a part of the Danbon River’s watershed, there are reservoirs in the northern edges of the city established as a means of flood control and water supply throughout the city. These reservoirs, alongside the Danbon river and several lesser rivers, account for the city’s 127.62 km2 of water coverage, which account for around 1.8% of the city’s total area of around 5,524.82 km2. The city’s area, overall, however, has been on the increase, amid land reclamation projects in Shin Daedo and sections of the Danbon River delta: land reclamation in Shin Daedo alone has increased the city’s land area by 105.5 km2 between 1550 and 1600.


A panoramic view of Daedo's Skyline in Shinsa-gu district around 1600.

Much of the urban area within Daedo spreads out in a radial road network with a set of concentric ring roads surrounding and connecting urban areas with one another. Despite further development along the Danbon River and in the coastal region, Daedo’s urban center remains to be in the Sudo-gu district, which is accompanied by Jung-gu district containing the Old City area to its east. Emperor Seongjo Boulevard (alternately the Daeseong Boulevard) and the Kim Shimin Boulevard, intersecting at the Arch of Zhenian Unification at the center of Sudo-gu district, forms the north-south and east-west backbone of the city’s road network respectively. Being situated at the center of Zhenia’s urban network, he Arch of Zhenian Unification is also the city’s point zero and serves as a milestone for measuring distances from the city.

Although having clear city centers, Daedo itself is a highly polycentric city, as a result of the city's geography and economic development policies: the city's cultural and administrative functions are mainly handled by Sudo-gu district and the Old City area in Jung-gu district. The city's commercial and financial hubs, however, are located in the Shinsa-gu district, the Hanam region as a whole and in Shin Daedo, while its technology hub is scattered throughout Yanghwapo and Shin Daedo.

Administrative subdivisions

Daedo is subdivided into 26 districts (Zhenian: 구) and 771 township-level administrative subdivisions (Zhenian: 동). Districts can vary significantly in size, ranging from 25 km2 to 671 km2, as well as population, ranging from 320,000 to 1.6 million. As of 1610, Shin Daedo was the most populous district with over 1.6 million residents, while Danwon was the largest by land area at 671 km2. The government of each district also handles many of the day-to-day functions seen in city governments within prefectures, although they still yield to the authority of the Special City Government in terms of priority. Districts can also vary considerably in the number of township-level administrative subdivisions, with some districts having over 30 separate townships and distinct neighborhoods.

The administrative subdivisions comprising Daedo are informally categorized into one of the two categories according to its relative location with the Danbon River - the Habuk area (Zhenian: 하북) for all parts of Daedo north of the Danbon River, and the Hanam area (Zhenian: 하남) for parts of the city located south of the Danbon River. The Habuk area is home to Daedo's historical and cultural center, particularly its Old City area and Sudo-gu district, while the Hanam area was mostly developed far later on, initially as residential areas but later becoming Daedo's leading business and commercial center. While both Habuk and Hanam are also the names of two of the city's district-level administrative subdivisions, the two terms are often used to informally refer to regions in Daedo as a whole.


Daedo, Zhenia
Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

Daedo's climate has a Koppen classification of Cw, indicating a high concentration of yearly precipitation in the summer seasons and generally dry winters, with the regional climate under considerable influence from seasonal winds to the north and south. While spring and fall seasons tend to see lower precipitation, a vast majority of the city's precipitation is focused on June, July and August. The high focus of annual precipitation can be traced back to the influence of monsoons in the summer, resulting from the warm, humid winds coming from the North Hanmaric Ocean. Winters in Daedo can be freezing, with temperatures often dropping to −3.1 °C in January and with average of 27.3 days of snow in the winter. While summers can be humid, with an average of 61 days of precipitation, it tends to be milder than inland regions of the Danguk Peninsula. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 46% in July and 87% in October, Daedo on average receives 2,791 hours of sunshine annually. Extreme temperatures since 1901 have ranged from -22.1 °C (−7.8 °F) on December 30, 1977 to 41.1 °C (106 °F) on July 30, 1607, during a nationwide heat wave in 1607.

Due to the existence of dense built-up areas of concrete, asphalt and glass, mid-day temperatures of Daedo's city center tends to be higher than that of the greener suburban areas elsewhere in the peninsula, as a result of the heat island effect, while the skyrocketing of high-rise apartment buildings and skyscrapers throughout various points of the city has also influenced the local wind flow from the Gulf of Danguk to the Danguk Peninsula. Compared to other cities of comparable size, however, the heat island effect of Daedo tends to be more contrasting due to the existence of forest-covered mountains along the eastern and southern peripheries of the city's built-up urban areas. Daedo's climate has also been influenced by increases in anthropogenic emissions, which in hand has resulted in a decline in surface albedo, wind speed and humidity near the surface compared to pre-industrial years.


National Government

The National Parliament Hall is one of the pinnacles of the National Government's presence in the city.
The Daeseong Palace, residence and office of the Chancellor, is located in Daedo's Sudo district.

As the capital city of the Republic of Zhenia, the city of Daedo is home to much of the headquarters and offices of the National Government, many of which are situated in the Sudo-gu district (literally 'capital district' in Zhenian). With the Arch of Zhenian Unification standing at the center of the roundabout from which Emperor Seongjo Boulevard runs from north to south, giving way to the Daeseong Palace to the north and the National Parliament Hall to the south. Most governmental ministries, are headquartered along Kim Shimin Bouelvard between Emperor Seongjo Memorial and Zhenian Democracy Memorial, the eastern and western ends of the city's capital district; however, some buildings, including the National Treasury, are found along Emperor Seongjo Boulevard. The National Supreme Court is located to the southwest of National Parliament Hall, adjacent to the headquarter building of the Jungchuwon.

There are, however, ministries and other governmental facilities located outside of Sudo-gu district, particularly the headquarters of the Republic of Zhenia Defense Forces and the National Department of Security, which are located in the Munmu District, to the city's southeast. Embassies are also scattered throughout various points of the city, although high concentrations of foreign embassies can be observed in Embassy Avenue at the border of Sudo-gu district and Donhwa-gu district, as well as around Jung-gu and the Old City area.

Metropolitan Government

The Daedo Metropolitan Government primarily meets upon Daedo Special City Hall.

As the nation's only Special City, it is administratively controlled by the Daedo Metropolitan Government; its government is organized akin to those found in metropolitan municipalities. The Metropolitan Government is headed by the Special City Administrator (Zhenian: 특별판윤/特別判尹), who, like all heads of provincial-level governments, are allowed to participate in the National Government's cabinet meetings; however, as the head of the Special City, the Special City Administrator is considered equal to ministers in the National Government - a privilege granted to the Special City since the Empire of Zhenia. The title of Special City Administrator is often translated into "Mayor" in some contexts, as the entirety of Daedo is incorporated into one special city; however, while a mayor can just be the head of an independent city or municipality, the Special City Administrator is regarded as the gateway to the higher echelons of the National Government, due to its special nature.

Daedo, like other provincial-level administrative areas, also has its own legislative body, known as the Daedo Metropolitan Assembly. Although modeled similar to the National Parliament, it is unicameral in nature, consisting of representatives elected from their respective electoral districts proportionate to the population of each electoral district. While acts of the Metropolitan Assembly cannot override those of any branches of the National Parliament, it can make most province-level decisions autonomously without direct intervention of the National Parliament, with its administrative orders retain the same authority as those made by provincial governments found around the nation. The Daedo Metropolitan Assembly, as well as the city's city hall, is located adjacent to one another in Jung-gu district.

International relations

Since 1564 AC, the Daedo Special City Metropolitan Government has been piloting the Sister Cities Initiative, at an attempt to foster international exchange of ideas and cultures by facilitating the grounds through the establishment of sister cities with prominent cities around the world. As of 1610 AC, the following are sister cities of Daedo, along with the year they became sister cities:


Daedo is the most populous city in Zhenia, a title it has taken from Junggyeong and maintained since 1895. It is home to over 21.6 million residents, while its metropolitan area, the Greater Capital Megalopolis, is home to a combined total of 40 million residents, or about 6.3% of the nation's population, together forming one of the largest megalopolises in the world. Despite attempts to disperse population into surrounding areas, Daedo remains one of the fastest-growing cities in the nation in terms of population, with an average annual population growth rate of 1.3% from 2010 to 2015.


Daedo, despite the influx of mainland Wei Zhenians since the 15th century AC, is still considered a predominantly Dan Zhenian city. As of 1610 AC, 86.6% of the city's 21.6 million residents reported themselves as Dan Zhenians, while only 6.1% were Wei Zhenian; Yemeg, Balakhaat and Haedong Zhenians followed with 1.5%, 1.4% and 0.4% of the population respectively, followed by a combined total of other ethnic groups The percentage of Dan Zhenians, however, has been declining since the 1590s AC, being compensated by an overall increasing number of Wei Zhenians in the region. The ethnic composition of the city's demographics has seen significant changes since the industrialization of Shindan and the Wars of Zhenian Unification in the early 15th century AC, with a significant flow of rural to urban migration, from central and southern Zhenia as well as other parts of the Danguk Peninsula to Daedo, was induced.


Despite being the largest metropolitan area in the nation, the Greater Capital megalopolis surrounding Daedo is considered one of the least religious areas in the nation, with more than a third of its residents unaffiliated to religion of any form. Zhenian Wuists and those who follow its denominations account for only 49.6% of the the total population, significantly lower than the national average of around 60 percent.


Primary and secondary education

Shindan Academy is the oldest private autonomous secondary school in the nation that is still in operation.
Daedo is also home to the nation's highest density of hagwons, which are private institutions on extracurricular studies.

There are a total of 2,751 primary and 1,602 secondary schools in Daedo that educates almost 3 million school age students across the city, a figure that encompasses all types of secondary schools as well as special education schools following the grade classification system of the nation. Primary and secondary schools in Daedo, regardless of whether they are state-run or not, are subject to the supervision of the Daedo Special City Office of Education (Zhenian: 대도특별시교육청), which is in charge of regulating the day-to-day affairs in running and managing the schools as a whole. Due to extensive funding and support from the local government, the teacher-to-student ratio across Daedo's primary ans secondary schools are at around 21 to 1, among the lowest in the country.

Considered a major educational hub in the nation, Daedo is home to more autonomous and specialized secondary schools than any other city in the nation, with over 105 autonomous and 34 specialized secondary schools within city limits. Among the most prestigious of such secondary schools include Daedo Science High School, a state-run secondary school specializing in the sciences, Daedo International High School, a school with a specialized curriculum centered around foreign languages and international affairs and Shindan Academy, an autonomous high school that is also the oldest surviving secondary school in the nation. Several other academic secondary high schools are considered prestigious on a national scale, with many schools being held up to high academic standards. Some secondary schools in the city have been absorbed into universities and have become affiliated schools to the university: while this does not guarantee entrance into the university directly, it as seen an elevation in the reputation of such institutes due to improved academic environments modeled after those of the university it is affiliated to. The high density of prestigious institutions in the city has resulted in an abnormally higher academic fever among the city's students, resulting in both the highest average AAT-I and AAT-II scores in the nation but also the highest expenditure on education per capita.

Higher education

The University of Daedo is one of the most prestigious institutions in the nation.

Daedo is home to some of the most prestigious and highly-ranked universities in not only Zhenia but also the world. Among the 65 four-year universities that are located within city limits, University of Daedo, the Zhenia Advanced Institute of Technology, Mahan University and Muhakgwan University have a major presence in the nation. The University of Daedo alone has three separate campuses around the city - its Shindan campus, the main campus, is located around the western edge of Daedo's Sudo district; its Shin Daedo campus, where its medical, dental and public health schools are located, are in Shin Daedo New Town; and its Seoan campus is home to its graduate school of venture businesses, being adjacent to the Seoan Technovalley industrial park and specializing in venture businesses and advanced research. Due to its nature of being actively supported by the state and the Jungchuwon, the University of Daedo is often considered as the Zhenian forerunner in many of its fields of academia.

Mahan University, founded in 1221 AC, is the second-oldest private research university in Zhenian history: initially specializing in law, medicine and the sciences, it expanded its field of studies and proved an effective model of expansion for other private universities across the nation. Muhakgwan University, with its roots on the Muhakgwan that had been established in 1015 AC during Shindan's control of the city as a royal institute for prospective bureaucrats, is the oldest university in Zhenia that still operates under its original name to its day. Other prominent universities within the city include the National Institute of the Arts, Daedo Medical University and Danbon University. While rising land prices and the pressure for expansion has driven a number of universities to rebuild and relocate their campuses to the outskirts of Daedo or even into Gyeongin Province, the existence of a campus within Daedo, particularly closer to the city center, remains a significant merit for such institutions.


An alternate view of Daedo's newer Financial District in Shinsa-gu.
Daedo International Financial Center, while also being the tallest building in the nation, is the pinnacle of Daedo's financial power, hosting the Daedo Stock Exchange.

Daedo today is a major global economic and financial hub, as a center for banking, finance, commerce, retail, transportation, trade, tourism, media, insurance, the arts and technology of Zhenia as a whole. Despite only accounting for less than 4 percent of the nation's population and less than 0.2% of the nation's total area, the city is home to 5.5% of its total economic activity and 28% of the nation's millionaires and billionaires. Its GDP measured by PPP as of 1610 AC is around $997 billion, or around $42,239.88 per capita, the fourth-highest and third-highest in a province-level administrative subdivision by total and per capita respectively. Its metropolitan region, spanning parts of the central Gyeongin Province, is home to one of the largest metropolitan economies in the world, its 40 million residents contributing around $1.9 trillion into the Zhenian economy, or around 12 percent of the nation's entire economic output.

Daedo is home to the global headquarters of many of the largest companies in the world, as well as several multinational corporations. 37 of the 100 largest companies in the nation have their global headquarters in the city, while a vast majority of the remaining 63 have located their regional headquarters around Daedo to manage their businesses in the Danguk Peninsula. The presence of multinational corporations and foreign companies in Daedo's economy is significant, with foreign-based companies accounting for roughly 8% of all private sector jobs in the nation. It is ranked as one of the largest global cities in the world, being a key leader in attracting capital, businesses and tourists from across the world.

Other important sectors prominent in the city include high tech, education (mostly universities), medical research and technology, biotechnology, fashion, the arts and non-profit institutions. Although historically a major center of the nation's heavy industry, most heavy industries, including shipbuilding and manufacturing, has been on the decline but remains as a significant component of the city's economy. The influx of venture capital investments into Daedo has resulted in the city's surge in high tech startups and smaller enterprises in various fields. It has also been a major leader in medical research and biotechnology in the nation, being home to the Shin Daedo Medical Cluster, a cluster consisting of a number of university medical centers, national and private medical institutes, several private-sector life sciences companies and startups.


A major international financial center, Daedo is considered one of the largest financial hubs in the world, housing many of the world's largest investment banks and insurance companies. The city is home to over 1,400 financial institutions, around 600 of which are foreign-invested. The city is well-known for its large securities and futures industry, which has generated a combined total of over 200,000 jobs in Daedo alone. The median income for those employed in Daedo's financial sector is measured at around $330,000, almost five times the city's average. Daedo's financial sector has been widely hailed by domestic and international media alike as the "economic engine of Zhenia" as as a whole.

Traditionally, Shinsa-gu district has been regarded as the primary financial hub of the city, its name coterminous with the "financial capital of Zhenia". Although it now shares its status as the city's financial core with Shin Daedo, Shinsa-gu remains home to DAX200, the second-largest stock exchange in the country after the Daedo Stock Exchange measured by market capitalization. Many of the hedge funds, investment banks and managers headquartered in Daedo remain in Shinsa-gu district. The Zhenia Board of Commerce as well as the Financial Supervisory Directorate, which oversee securities transactions and play a role in regulating the nation's financial industry, remain headquartered in Shinsa-gu despite proposals to relocate them to Shin Daedo. The high density of financial firms in the district has resulted in the securities industry generating almost 45% of the district's entire tax revenue, as well as the district be ranked among the richest districts in the city by tax revenue.

Since the end of the 16th century AC, Shin Daedo too has risen as an emerging financial hub of the city, leading a significant portion of the city's financial industry along with it. Shin Daedo is home to the Daedo Stock Exchange, the single largest stock exchange market in the nation by market capitalization at around $20 trillion as of 1609 AC. A significant portion of the futures industry, as well as private equity firms and debt capital markets, have relocated to Shin Daedo in the 1590s and 1600s. Global and regional headquarters of select investment firms and commercial banks, including the Daedo Bank of Commerce, BM Bank and the Dan Group, as well as the Zhenian branches of numerous international investment banks, have relocated in Shin Daedo.

Media and entertainment

The global headquarters of the Zhenia Shinbo is located in Daedo.

Daedo is considered the hub of domestic and international media in Zhenia, being home to the headquarters of numerous domestic media corporations. It is home to the global headquarters of the Zhenia Shinbo and the Eastern Herald - two of the largest newspapers in the nation by circulation - among other media companies. The headquarters of 16 broadcasting companies, including the state-run Zhenia Broadcasting Corporation (ZBC), are also located in Daedo, more than any other city in the nation.

Tech and medicine

Yanghwapo, situated just north of the Danbon River between Shin Daedo and Shinsa-gu district, has become coterminous with the cluster of high-tech industries involving telecommunications, the Internet, digital media, financial technology (FinTech), software development and other sectors involving the nation's information technology sector. Formerly a major electronics parts and reselling hub, the influx of extensive venture capital investments, as well as a business-friendly ecosystem, has resulted in the rapid growth of high-tech startups in the city. Leveraging its large consumer base, vicinity to major telecommunications trunk lines across the nation and major transportation hubs and extensive wireless internet service coverage, Yanghwapo has grown to be a symbol of Zhenia's information technology and intellectual capital industries. The further investment of major corporations in recent years has both spurred and hindered the growth of the region, raising concerns over the sustainability of the venture-friendly environment.

The presence of other high technology startup companies and research institutes among others have been growing notably in the Hanam-gu and Seoan-gu districts, where the Seoan Technovalley industrial park, one of the largest single industrial parks constructed in Zhenian history, has also attracted venture businesses and research institutes across various fields. This has been further aided by the relocation of the Zhenia Advanced Institute of Technology's main campus, the University of Daedo's Seoan campus and several national research facilities headed by the Jungchuwon, including the National Institute of Applied Sciences, adjacent to the complex. The proximity of advanced research institutes to venture businesses have allowed for active industrial-educational cooperation and commercialization of cutting-edge technology in said industrial parks, in a process coined as "from the labs to the market".

Amid extensive governmental and private funding as well as high levels of academic scientific research, medical research and biotechnology are also sectors that are prospering in the city. A northeastern segment of Shin Daedo has been designated as the Shin Daedo Medical Cluster since 1600, being home to the National Medical Center, the University of Daedo Medical Center and other major medical centers and biotechnology companies as well as pharmaceutical enterprises. There have been attempts to expand the city's potential in the biomedical sector by extending the cluster southeast towards Yanghwapo, aiming for a synergy effect of promoting the growth of biomedical industries. The cluster is the single largest biomedical cluster in the nation, dwarfing a similar asset in Ariul.


Tourism has risen to be a prominent private sector industry for Daedo, providing around 7% of the total private sector jobs within city limits. The city has seen significant increases in the number of domestic and international tourists visiting the city: as of 1609 AC, an estimated total of around 68 million visitors, a figure including both domestic and international tourists, have visited the city but not including those who transfer during layovers in Daedo's airports. Around 20 million of such visitors were from outside Zhenia, with the highest numbers coming from Craunmei, Yinguo, Ayeran, Katamur and Abayad respectively. Daedo has also been hailed as a popular destination for annual conventions and conferences, being home to a large hotel infrastructure and several convention facilities across the city, the most notable being the Aria Exposition Center in Shin Daedo. Tourism has added over $48.7 billion into the city's economy as of 1609 AC.


As both the nation's capital and largest city, transportation in Daedo has been developed with its role as the central hub of not only the Capital Metropolitan Area but also the entirety of the Danguk Peninsula and ultimately Zhenia in mind. As a result, it has some of the most developed transportation networks in the nation via road, rail, air and ultimately shipping. Its public transportation system, particularly its rapid transit network, is one of the largest in the world and features high connectivity with other modes of transport available in the city.

Urban Rail

The Daedo Metro is one of the largest rapid transit services in the world.
The Daedo Capital Rapid Express, connecting the city center with distant urban and suburban areas, has also served as a commuter rail service.
Light rail lines have recently risen as a cost-effective transit solution throughout outer Daedo.

The Daedo Metro, often stylized as MTX, is the oldest rapid transit line in the nation, with its service commencing in 1920. Spanning across over 530 km (329 mi) of track and serving over 3.1 billion riders every year, it is the busiest rapid transit service in the nation and one of the busiest in the world. Situated alongside and beneath MTX lines is the Capital Rapid Express (CRX), an express service connecting the capital city to more distant urban areas without direct MTX coverage, often in neighboring Gyeongin Province. Although a vast majority of such lines are operated by the Daedo Capital Transit Authority, other transit corporations, have participated in the operation of select urban rail lines: the Zhenia National Railway Company, for instance, has taken up the operation of the Trans Capital Line, stretching from north to south directly traversing the city. While the Daedo Metro already operates 15 heavy rail lines and 5 light rail lines, there are 2 more new lines and 4 extensions in the MTX planned for completion by 2023.

Daedo is also home to a series of commuter rail services, which are normally extensions of select MTX lines extending towards the suburbs of the city. As of now, MTX lines 1, 4, 7, 9 and 12 have extensions connecting Daedo with cities and suburbs outside its borders. Commuter rail services in Daedo often share tracks with conventional intercity rail services, which often end up stopping on the same stations. Transfer between commuter rail services and existing MTX services is free of charge, with the fare calculated according to the beginning and ending stations of the journey respectively. All Daedo Metro lines and other urban rail lines serviced by ZhenRail and the Daedo Capital Transit Authority are part of the Capital Region Unified Fare System, which calculates fares without weight by location inside Daedo and instead appropriates fares according to distance traveled.

A recent dominating trend in urban rail throughout Daedo has been the establishment of light rail lines in areas where establishment of heavy rapid transit was deemed uneconomical. Although differing in size or service type, all light rail lines have also been integrated directly into the network, sharing the transfer and fare system of other urban rail networks in the city. As of December 1610, there are ten light rail lines throughout Daedo, many of which provide rail coverage to previously under-served residential and suburban areas. While most rapid transit lines in the city have been built underground, some light rail lines in outer Daedo have been brought aboveground.

Daedo's extensive bus network expands throughout the city, providing high coverage to neighborhoods with or without rail coverage.

Buses and trams

Daedo's bus network, operated directly by the Daedo Capital Transit Authority, has four primary types of buses operating throughout the city and vicinity, often complementing the Daedo Metro especially in places without direct rail access. Tied to the Daedo Metro services via an integrated fare system, almost free transfer between Daedo Metro lines and Daedo's bus network is possible, with Daedo buses often directly allowing for free transfers in certain stops in close proximity to metro stations. The designation of bus-only lanes in city center as well as the introduction of bus rapid transit services further connected more distant urban areas to the city center, effectively complementing both the capacity and location-related restrictions of the Daedo Metro. Most bus rapid transit hubs, as well as transfer hubs for urban buses, are located near major Daedo Metro stations with high transient population.

In addition to the city's urban bus network, Daedo is also the nexus of the nation's intercity bus services, primarily serving the Danguk Peninsula region. Three intercity bus terminals - Daedo South Station, Shinsa Express Bus Terminal and Munmu Intercity Bus Terminal - primarily offer both intercity and express coach services to cities throughout the nation, although mostly within the Danguk Peninsula and vicinity. As they are not formally part of Daedo's municipal public transportation network, intercity buses are not transferable from other modes of transportation: however, all modes of payment for public transportation, including the Mapae One contact-less payment system, is compatible within city limits.

Emperor Seongjo Boulevard, dubbed 'Zhenia's Main Street', is one of the most important roads in the city.

Road network

Daedo is accompanied by both aboveground and underground expressways around the city.
Terminal 2 of Daedo Capital International Airport, opened in 2011, is the largest terminal in the airport.
Jinpo International Airport, the former primary hub of the city.
Daedo Central Station is one of the largest train stations in the nation.

Daedo is connected by multiple road networks to neighboring cities and beyond, with varying degree. The city is considered the central nexus of the National Expressway network, with two beltway lines directly circling the city's urban area, while the Trans Danguk Expressway and Golden Arc Expressway directly pass through the administrative areas of the city among many others. Near the innermost parts of the city, however, both the Trans Danguk and Golden Arc Expressway bypass underground beneath urban areas, due to Zhenian legislation prohibiting aboveground expressways within the capital city. Apart from highways, numerous national roads spread across the Danguk Peninsula in a radial form with Daedo at the center; some of such national roads have been designated as major avenues running through city center, the best notable example being the Emperor Seongjo Boulevard, dubbed 'Zhenia's Main Street'. While the older parts of the city are built on grids and semi-grid plans laid out since the Shindan dynasty, most parts of the city, having been developed since the Empire of Zhenia, are developed under a grid structure drawn out by the municipal government.

A total of 36 bridges, 29 of which are primarily automobile road bridges, traverse the Danbon River within the city's administrative area, with some of the most notable being the Shinjin Bridge, Danbon Bridge and the Kim Shimin Bridge. Also traversing the Danbon River, but beneath it are and 5 railway tunnels and 3 road tunnels, which were built to replace older bridges and to allow for shipping traffic along the river to the Port of Daedo.

Air transportation

The city is served by two airports - Daedo Capital International Airport (IATA: DCX), which is the primary international and domestic hub of the city, and Jinpo International Airport, the former international hub of the city before Daedo Capital International Airport and currently the city's secondary hub. Daedo Capital International Airport, primarily serving international and cargo air traffic, opened in 1997, was built upon reclaimed land in the southwestern coastal region of the city to replace Jinpo International Airport as the city's international hub. Situated around 45 kilometers to the southwest of the city center, it is the single largest and busiest international airport in the nation, serving over 100 million passengers in 2018. It serves as the primary hub for Zhenian Airways, Air Zhenia and StarEast Airlines. The Capital Airport Expressway and other highways directly connect the airport to the city, which then links to the city's extensive road network; driving under normal conditions would take 45 minutes from the city center to airport. The Daedo Airport Express and the MTX Blue Line, as well as various airport bus services, serve the airport.

While it is no longer the city's primary international hub, Jinpo International Airport (IATA: JPI) still remains a secondary hub airport complementing Daedo Capital International Airport, retaining most domestic and assorted international flights, as well as business-centered private charter flights. Situated around 32 kilometers to the northwest of city center, it was the city's primary hub airport from 1934 to 1997. Although no longer the primary hub of full service carriers such as Zhenian Airways and Air Zhenia, the airport is still widely used as secondary hubs of Zhenian carriers and leisure airlines. It is connected by the Airport Railway and the Daedo Metro Line 4, as well as various airport and metropolitan bus services.

Domestic flights connecting Daedo and some of the nations's largest cities, particularly Changan, Shinhang, Jinhae, Bakhan and Jin-Nampo, have all come under competition with high-speed rail amid the expansion of the Zhenia National Express (ZNX) since the 1970s, to the degree of most air services within the Danguk Peninsula being almost completely replaced by train services. Although the predominance of flight is expected to persist in routes across the Gulf of Danguk and onto mainland Zhenia, it has been facing sheer competition amid the improvement of express train services of the ZNX as well as future plans to introduce maglev systems along the Golden Arc region.

Intercity Rail

Apart from regional rapid transit services, Daedo is served by an array of intercity trains linking the city to various points across the nation. There are four ZNX stations within city limits - Daedo Central Station, Daedo South Station, Daedo North Station and Shin Daedo Station, all four of which are directly linked to one another by ZNX shuttles and MTX services. Other trains, such as the Shinjin Express and the Trans Danguk Railway, directly pass through the city. Like expressways, level crossings of intercity rail in the city has been minimized in adherence to Zhenian legislation, with most of the existing aboveground intercity rail either elevated or moved into subterranean tunnels.

Apart from ZNX services, other conventional train services offer connections to other cities from Daedo. While all four ZNX-dedicated stations within Daedo also have conventional train services, conventional, lower-speed trains stop on many of the nation's secondary stations scattered throughout the city. Like ZNX stations, almost all stations with conventional intercity rail transit are linked to the city's metropolitan transit network via ZNX lines, although transfer between them are not compatible. Some intercity rail lines share tracks with ZNX lines operating within city limits, as well as the Trans Capital Line and other commuter rail services. As of 1610 AC, Daedo is serviced by all levels of service in various stations across city limits, and has the largest number of intercity rail services making stops in the city.

Infrastructure and public services

Energy and water supply

Daedo primarily depends on nuclear and hydroelectric power for most of its electricity generation, with the hydroelectric power plants in the Lake Cheongpyeong Dam in central Gyeongin Province and nuclear reactors at Gacheon Nuclear Power Plant in Gwandong Province providing around 84% of the Special City's energy needs. The remaining 16 percent are provided by nearby natural gas and heat integration plants situated near the city's borders. The Zhenia National Electric Company, as is the case with the remainder of the nation, maintains control over the electric grid surrounding Daedo.


Part of the National Health Service, public hospitals and clinics throughout the city are directly owned and operated by the national and municipal. Altogether, Daedo is home to 51 university medical centers - a figure higher than any other province-level subdivision in the nation.

Public safety

Emergency services, a term encompassing both the police and fire departments of the city, are under the supervision of the Daedo Special City Government as well as respective branches in the Government. The Daedo Special City Police Department is one of the largest police departments in the nation in terms of manpower and budget, at over 40,000 sworn officers and a budget equivalent to over $6.6 billion as of 1609 AC. Coupled with extensive support from the national government and active public management across the city, Daedo is often referred to as one of the safest cities in the nation in terms of violent crimes.

Firefighting and other emergency services are handled primarily by the Daedo Special City Fire Department, the single largest emergency fire services in the nation. It employs over 12,000 uniformed firefighters as well as 4,000 emergency medical technicians and paramedics. Owing to the city's environment of being centered around high-rise buildings and skyscrapers, the department is home to the single largest fleet of firefighting helicopters and ladder vehicles.

Culture and contemporary life


The Daehwa-era Heungdukgung Palace, restored during the Empire of Zhenia, is an exemplary case of Daedo's historical architecture.

Throughout most of its history, Daedo's architecture was dominated by that of the Danguk Peninsula. Thus, historic Zhenian architecture more or less follows the styles of states that occupied the Danguk Peninsula, particularly the Daehwa and Shindan dynasties. The city having started out as a planned capital, the Daehwa dynasty built the imperial palace and accompanying walls that now constitute the borders of the Old City areas of Gaewon-gu and Jung-gu districts. The city itself was historically rebuilt several times under Shindanese rule following the Kharlin invasions and the decline of the Daehwa dynasty, as it was designated a secondary capital of the dynasty in its later years. While very few buildings dating back to the Daehwa dynasty, aside from the Daehwa-era Heungdukgung Palace in modern-day Gaewon-gu district, survive to this day, significantly larger numbers of buildings from the Shindan era survive to this day, including all four gates of the Old City area and most of the Old City area around the palace today. Much of the Old City area has been put under protection by the Special City Government since the later half of the 16th century.

Modern architecture throughout Daedo has been mostly dominated by modernist architecture, as well as Zhenian futurist and neo-futurist architecture.

Large complexes of apartments, dubbed "apartment forests", are a common sight in Daedo.

Daedo's skyline is recognized universally among Zhenians as a symbol of industrialization and economic development early on, coining the Zhenian term "building forest". It is home to many of the tallest buildings in the nation as well as the world. The city is home to more high-rises and skyscrapers (defined as buildings that rise over 200 meters or at least 50 stories above ground) than any other Zhenian city, being home to 817 structures at least 100 meters (330 feet) in height as well as more than 20 completed buildings measuring over 200 meters (656 feet) in height.

Like most cities in Zhenia, many of the residential areas within Daedo are defined as complexes of high-rise buildings of varying eras. Although apartments in the city have been existent since the late 14th century, the oldest surviving apartment in the city is the Jinsadang in Jung-gu district, constructed in 1451 and standing to this day. Apartment complexes in the modern sense of the word emerged throughout Daedo since the 16th century amid the city's robust population growth, with low-rise building complexes beginning to dominate the residential areas of the city. During the Third Republic, many older low-rise complexes began to be rebuilt into high-rises amid the wave of modernism and incentives to increase the floor area ratio of residential areas within the nation. An increasingly catching trend for residential areas throughout the city, especially after the November Revolution, has been the redevelopment and renewal of residential complexes developed earlier in the century.

Visual arts

The National Museum of Zhenia, located in Daedo's Haseo district, is the single largest museum in the nation.

Daedo is home to the largest concentration of cultural institutions, historical sites and art galleries in the nation. Adjacent to the central government's buildings in Sudo-gu district alongside Emperor Seongjo and Kim Shimin Boulevards is a complex of national museums and galleries dubbed the Sudo National Complex, all open to the public free of charge; as of 1609 AC, a combined total of over 160 million had visited the museums as a whole. Among the most-visited institutions in the complex include the National Museum of Natural History, the National Museum of Modern History and the Gwangmu Museum of Art. The largest museum in the city, however, is the National Museum of Zhenia in Haseo district, which is also the single largest museum in the nation. Other notable national galleries within Daedo include the Daeseong Hall of the Arts and the Zhenia Democracy Memorial within the Sudo National Complex, as well as the National Museum of Modern Art in Daedo and the National War Museum in Chungmu-gu and Gaewon-gu districts respectively.

Performing arts



See Also